The Hector Berlioz Website

Berlioz, Dörffel and Derffel


© Grigory Moiseev*
(P.I. Tchaikovsky Moscow State Conservatory)

     The year 2017 marks the one-hundred-and-fiftieth anniversary of Berlioz’s second grand tour in Russia. This is a fitting moment to reconsider and reassess some of the sources of our information about that event, in particular, documents pertaining to the Russian Musical Society and to the French composer’s correspondents in 1867 and 1868, and more recent publications dedicated to Berlioz’s final undertaking as the greatest itinerant conductor of his generation.

     While examining those documents and publications, I became interested in the life of a little known musician, Joseph Derffel (1823–1884), who, in the late eighteen-sixties, was the court pianist for Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna, and who performed occasionally in St Petersburg. Until now, Derffel has never appeared on the radar of the experts on Berlioz. But it turns out that Derffel, together with Vassily Kologrivov, a director of the Russian Musical Society, and with Carl Becker, the Grand Duchess’ librarian, (1) was a central figure among those involved in preparing Berlioz’s concerts in the historic Russian city. In Paris, in September 1867, Derffel communicated with Berlioz, assisted him in sending scores to St Petersburg, travelled with him in November to the capital of the Russian Empire, in the company of the soprano Anna Regan, and performed Beethoven’s Piano Concerto No. 5, on 25 January 1868, under Berlioz’s direction.

     The addressee of the letters of Berlioz published in volumes VII and IX of the Correspondance générale — numbers 3282, 3285, 3287, 3291bis, 3341, and 3347 — is not the German Derfell musicologist and publisher Alfred Dörffel (1824–1905), as has been previously thought, but the pianist Joseph Derffel, (2) That is the situation I wish to address in this paper. But first, two preliminary remarks: 1) I have found the original autograph manuscripts of two of the letters that Berlioz addressed to Vassily Kologrivov, dated 22 October and 12 November 1867, which were heretofore known to us only from the transcriptions made by Octave Fouque.(3) The second of these specifically mentions Derffel. Accurate transcriptions of these two letters appear here in the Appendix. 2) The indications in CG VII regarding the whereabouts of letters Nos. 3354 and 3361 (addressed by Berlioz to the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna on 14 April and 4 June 1868), and 3364 (addressed by Carl Becker to Berlioz on 9 June), are inaccurate: these items are preserved in the Central State Historical Archive of St Petersburg (CSHA, St Petersburg).

     As noted, the principal materials for this paper are letters presented in Berlioz’s Correspondance générale and the collection of documents preserved in the archives of the Russian Musical Society,(4) These enable us to witness in some detail the preparations for Berlioz’s concerts, and the concerns of the various participants: the composer himself, the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna, Vassily Kologrivov, Carl Becker, and, lastly, Joseph Derffel.

     It has long been known that Berlioz was personally invited to St Petersburg by Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna, who desired that he conduct a series of concerts of the Russian Musical Society during the 1867-1868 season. The Grand Duchess furthermore promised to cover all the composer’s expenses during his visit to Russia. Events transpired rapidly: on 18 September 1867, in a letter to Count Alexander Keyserling,(5) Berlioz accepted the specific terms of the agreement he had discussed with the Grand Duchess.(6) Only two months later, on 28 November, he would give his first performance in St Petersburg.

     After returning to France, in mid-February 1868, Berlioz remained in contact with some of his Russian correspondents. Approximately thirty letters, published in CG VII and IX, attest to his continuing attachment to Russian friends and colleagues, including, beyond those already mentioned, Vladimir Stassov, Nicolai Rubinstein, César Cui, Alexei Lvov, Nicolai Zaremba, Henryk Wieniawski, Nicolai Chtcherbatchov, Mili Balakirev, and Wilhelm von Lenz.

     Alfred Dörffel (1821-1905), as we know, was a student of Mendelssohn and Schumann, and a pianist and musical publisher in Leipzig with a large collection that later evolved into the celebrated Musikbibliothek Peters.(7) In 1864, Gustav Heinze, in Leipzig, brought out Dörffel’s new translation of Berlioz’s Grand Traité d’instrumentation et d’orchestration modernes, a translation later published by Peters and used by Richard Strauss when, at the beginning of the twentieth century, he revised the Berlioz treatise to include advances in orchestration made by Wagner and by himself.(8) Dörffel also made an edition of the French version of Gluck’s Orphée, adopting “some, but by no means all, of Berlioz’s revisions and transpositions.”(9) Heinze brought out this edition two years later, in 1866, under the German title of Orpheus und Eurydice, Oper in drei Acten.

     Berlioz was grateful to Dörffel for his work in editing Gluck’s Orphée: “this was an enormous and extremely difficult task that only a dedicated man and a fine musician could have accomplished.”(10) Dörffel may have been a pianist, but we have no information about his career as a performing artist, and it was certainly not he who performed Beethoven’s Piano Concerto No. 5, with Berlioz conducting, in St Petersburg, in 1868.

     We notice that in Berlioz’s letters to “Dörffel”, there is indeed frequent mention of the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna (“Madame la Grande Duchesse”, “son Altesse impériale”) and of renowned actors and public figures of the St Petersburg branch of the Russian Musical Society. In his first letter, of 2 October 1867, Berlioz mentions having just seen Wieniawski, who agreed to perform at one of his forthcoming concerts, but who also mentioned that the opening Conservatory Concerts of the season were to be conducted by someone else — namely Balakirev — something that would have upset the compact schedule of Berlioz’s projected visit: “Please be so kind as to have Madame la Grande Duchesse set these matters straight [...]; please make a brief reply to my enquiries, and make sure there will be no nonsense in St Petersburg.”(11) The person to whom Berlioz addressed these words was obviously in close contact with the Grand Duchess and of some importance in musical circles around the Russian imperial court. Examination and analysis of the letters and documents reveals that the addressee of these letters was in fact the Austrian pianist and composer Joseph Derffel (1823-1884), whose biography, little known even among the specialists, needs to be outlined here.(12)

     Derffel was twenty years younger than Berlioz. Born in Trieste, in 1823, he moved to Vienna in 1835. He was a relative of the poet Franz von Schober, who was a close friend of Schubert’s and thus had a distant connection with the greatest song composer of the first quarter of the century. He had been a piano student of Eduard Hartl and Carl Maria von Bocklet, and had studied music theory with Simon Sechter. When he was only eight years old he made his first appearance on stage as a Wunderkind. After graduating cum laude from the University of Vienna, with specialities in physics and mathematics, he gave solo piano recitals while teaching the sciences, at the Imperial and Royal Polytechnic Institute, until 1855. He then fully committed himself to music, travelling to Paris in 1856, and, from 1857 to 1863, living in England (in Brighton and London), where he developed a fine reputation in aristocratic circles as an excellent teacher of the piano.

Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna

Pavlovla     Derffel’s artistic activities and popularity peaked in the mid-1860s. After his return to the continent, in 1864, he gave successful concerts in Vienna, Leipzig, Cologne, and Carlsbad. In February 1865, he was invited to St Petersburg to become the court pianist for Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna,(13) replacing Anton Rubinstein, who preceded Berlioz as the conductor of the symphonic concerts of the Russian Musical Society (Rubinstein would resign from that responsibility in July 1867). It appears that Elena Pavlovna was attracted to Derffel because of his scholarly activities and his extensive knowledge in many fields: he was talented as a musician, as a mathematician and physicist, and as a teacher fluent in at least four languages (German, Italian, French, and English). But she was particularly attracted to the fact that he was an heir to the Viennese tradition, a recognized interpreter of the great Viennese school of musicians, most notably Beethoven (Eduard Hanslick recognized him as such (14)), and a proficient accompanist in performing Schubert Lieder. The latter fact was especially appreciated by the Grand Duchess, who enjoyed playing host to young German singers who were gifted interpreters of Schubert. Indeed, Derffel was charged with seeking out those singers, in European conservatories, to perform at the Russian court. One such candidate was the young Bohemian soprano Anna Regan (1841-1902), who would participate in Berlioz’s concerts in St Petersburg on 28 November 1867 and 25 January 1868.

     Derffel was apparently an easy-going person who had many friends in the artistic and scientific communities. It is possible that he had met Berlioz in Vienna, when the French composer was on tour in the Austrian capital; it is perhaps more likely that he met Berlioz in Paris, when the pianist spent a year in the French capital: we have no evidence of such prior acquaintance, but Charles Gounod was in close contact with Derffel in 1856 (15), and Gounod and Berlioz were at the time on very friendly terms. Given the fact that Derffel seems to have been familiar with Berlioz’s life and work, I find it reasonable to believe that it was Derffel who urged the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna to invite Berlioz to St Petersburg.

     It seems likely that the first official contacts between Derffel and Berlioz occurred at the time Berlioz agreed to the terms that would send him to Russia: the French composer met in person with the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna, on 18 September 1867, to sign a contract; Derffel was an ex officio member of her entourage. Elena Pavlovna would soon travel to Bad Ragaz, in Switzerland, while Derffel stayed in Paris, remained in contact with Berlioz, and communicated to the Grand Duchess the requirements for Berlioz’s forthcoming excursion.

     A part of a letter from Derffel to the Grand Duchess, written on or about 23 September 1867, needs close analysis, for it includes, among other things, a first draft, heretofore unknown, of the programe Berlioz proposed to give for his first concert in St Petersburg. The items were presumably set down by Derffel, writing in German, during a conversation he had with Berlioz, or shortly thereafter.

Monsieur Hector Berlioz has fixed the programme for his first concert as follows:

1) Symphonie éroique [sic] — Beethoven
2) The second act of Orpheus (complete)
3) Duo-nocturne from the opera Béatrice et Bénédict — H. Berlioz
4) Overture to the opera Euryanthe — Weber

In the remaining concerts, the following works by Gluck are to be performed:

a) from Armide: the “Scène de la haine” from “venez, venez” to the end of the Act III (see the score, Edition Giraud [sic], page 105, etc);(16)
b) from Iphigénie en Tauride: The scene from the first act, from “Le ciel par d’éclatans miracles” to the end of the act (see pages 47–66 of the score);(17)
c) from Alceste: the third scene (from page 43 of the score) to the final scene of the Act I.(18)

Monsieur Berlioz intends to leave Paris on 3/15 November. Before his arrival in St Petersburg, it will now be necessary to translate into Russian the French texts of the above-mentioned works by Gluck. But only for the choirs. It is best that the solo parts be sung in the original language, which is that of the composer. If necessary, the baritone solo from excerpt b) may be sung in Russian. The existing translation of Orpheus should be supplemented and corrected with reference to the score lately published by Gustav Heinze in Leipzig. This score and the other above-mentioned operas will immediately be sent to the Mikhailovsky Palace. […] The choral parts (translated into Russian) and the orchestral parts must be completely copied for all the participants before the above date (15 November).(19)

     As has been known for some time, excerpts from Iphigénie en Tauride, Orphée, and Alceste were performed in St Petersburg, by Berlioz, on 7, 14, and 28 December 1867. Berlioz was very concerned with the matter of which edition of Gluck was to be used. But his first priority was to supply the performers with appropriate parts. From later correspondence we know that on 23 September 1867 Derffel sent a package to St Petersburg that contained the full scores of Alceste, Iphigénie en Tauride, and Armide, as well as two piano-vocal scores of Armide. On the same day he asked the Leipzig publisher Gustav Heinze to send to the Mikhailovski Palace one copy of the new full score of Gluck’s Orpheus edited, as we have seen, by Alfred Dörffel! (20)

     Derffel’s letter to the Grand Duchesse (in German) continues:

Monsieur Berlioz should like to know what is possible, in general and in detail, with the chorus and orchestra; he would like to know what solo voices are available and what their skills might be. He would like to see some listings from the catalogue of the Conservatory library, of full scores and vocal and instrumental parts, in order to compose the programmes of his subsequent concerts. Monsieur Berlioz would also like to know, as soon as possible, which of his own works are in the collections of the Conservatory library. Perhaps you might be able to send some recent concert programmes to Monsieur Berlioz.(21)
His address is: 4, rue de Calais, Paris.
Monsieur Berlioz insists that the number of rehearsals be sufficient to ensure fine performances.

Carl Becker


     The Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna ordered Carl Becker (her librarian) to translate this letter into French, as we know from her handwritten comment, visible in the upper margin of the first page of the letter.(22) On 29 September 1867, Becker sent his French version to Vassily Kologrivov, in St Petersburg, with the following introductory comment:

Monsieur Derffel asks me to add that Berlioz is worried that the number of concert rehearsals will be insufficient. Monsieur Derffel fears that Berlioz might even refuse to conduct at all, if he finds that this part of the agreement is not honoured, for he considers it to be the most important clause in his contract. (23)

     On 3 October 1867, after receiving this letter, Kologrivov delivered a highly detailed reply to Berlioz, dwelling upon all of the main issues that concerned the French composer.(24) Kologrivov’s letter was only recently discovered, by Anastasiia Syreischikova, in the Central State Historical Archives of St Petersburg. Syreischikova devotes a special page of her doctoral dissertation to the correspondence between Berlioz and Kologrivov, which she sees as the principal “link between Berlioz and the Russian Musical Society.”(25) Indeed, the importance of this correspondence can scarcely be overestimated.

     Nevertheless, the story of this “link” and this correspondence is substantially enriched by the appearance of Joseph Derffel. From the end of September 1867 he was at once in correspondence with Berlioz (as we know from Berlioz’s four letters to Derffel from September and October 1867, published in CG VII and IX) and with Kologrivov (as we know from two unpublished letters in German that are preserved in the Central State Historical Archives of St Petersburg), to whom he gave detailed instructions based on his personal contact with the French master.

     Let us consider one further fragment, this one from Derffel’s letter of 5 October 1867:

Monsieur Berlioz told me that in any event the choral rehearsal will have to be conducted separately from the orchestral rehearsals (something that he sees as necessary for satisfactory performance). From the beginning, Berlioz himself will take charge of the orchestral rehearsals. The choirs will at first have to rehearse on their own (under the supervision of Balakirev); they will join the orchestra at a later time.
    Finally, the soloists will have to study their parts separately, or with the help of a pianist. Accordingly, we will need two halls, one for the orchestra rehearsals, one for the choir rehearsals. A single hall would be insufficient, and would necessitate too much time for rehearsals, as the choir and the orchestra cannot rehearse at the same time without interfering with one other. But Monsieur Berlioz wants the halls to be close to each other and to the Mikhailovski Palace. Besides the conductor-choirmaster, two pianists will be needed: one for the rehearsals with the soloists (who will rehearse separately from the orchestra), the other to accompany the choirs. I believe that you already understand all of this, but I remind you of it because Monsieur Berlioz has stated categorically that he will refuse to conduct some of the works to be performed until they have reached in rehearsal what is in his opinion a state of near perfection. […] I personally think that it is simply not possible to give a proper performance of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony with the singers currently available in St Petersburg, or at least with those who were available there last winter.(26)

     Berlioz had indeed planned to conduct the Ninth Symphony at the fifth of his six concerts in St Petersburg, as we see in the draft of the programmes that he sent to Kologrivov on 10 October.(27) But he had to adjust this plan, perhaps on the advice of Derffel, as we may surmise from his letter to Derffel of 16 October 1867: “If we cannot prepare the Ninth Symphony properly, I will conduct only the first three instrumental movements, and, instead of the finale, Beethoven’s Piano Concerto in E-flat Major, played by Dreyschock”.(28)

     In the event, the Fifth Piano Concerto was in fact performed, and the soloist was none other than Joseph Derffel.

Regan     In his correspondence, Berlioz discusses some of his Russian concerts in detail. The final version of the programme of the concert that took place on 25 January 1868 was rather different from what was originally sketched. From the St Petersburg newspapers and from sources preserved in the archives, we know what was in fact performed on that occasion:(29)

     1) Weber, Overture to Der Freischütz.
     2) Paganini, Violin Concerto No. 1, orchestrated, and with cadenzas, by the soloist, August Wilhelmj.
     3) Weber, Agathe’s aria “Und ob die Wolke sie verhülle”, from Act III of Der Freischütz, with Anna Regan, soprano.
     4) Beethoven, Piano Concerto No. 5, with Joseph Derffel, piano.
     5) J. S. Bach, Air for solo violin and string quartet (from the Third Orchestral Suite), arranged by the soloist, August Wilhelmj.
     6) Haydn, Gabriel’s aria “Nun beut die Flur”, from The Creation, with Anna Regan.
     7) Beethoven, Symphony No. 4.

    All three soloists were well established in the aristocratic circles of St Petersburg: in the “Notification of the Directorate of the Russian Musical Society”, we read that “Mlle Regan and Monsieur Wilhelmj and Monsieur Derffel, soloists of Her Imperial Highness Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna, will take part in the concert. […] The orchestra will be conducted by Hector Berlioz, specially invited by the August Patroness of the Russian Musical Society, Her Imperial Highness Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna”.(30) The soloists on this occasion were indeed all musicians of the Grand-Ducal court.

     This concert was different from Berlioz’s other Russian concerts in that a) it featured no music by Berlioz; b) it featured music from the earlier baroque and classical periods, and thus met the desire for “classical concerts” articulated earlier in Kologrivov’s letter to Berlioz of 3 October 1867;(31) and c) it was less interesting than the other concerts, most critics thought, because it featured “hackneyed” and “obsolete” pieces chosen primarily to demonstrate the capabilities of Wilhelmj, Regan, and Derffel.(32) Berlioz, here, was a mere accompanist. As Cui remarked: “It was a concert of three soloists; Berlioz, who conducted, behaved like a famous financier, and managed to keep the budget to a mere several hundred roubles”.(33)

     It is not difficult to understand how the confusion of Dörffel and Derffel occurred. In the eighteen-sixties, Berlioz happened to frequent two musicians with similar names, the Saxon Alfred Dörffel and the Austrian Joseph Derffel. Both worked with the composer, but in rather different capacities. Had Berlioz been more careful about his orthography — with proper names in particular he often set down what he heard — we would not be telling this tale today.

Vasily Kologrivov


     Relations between Berlioz and Derffel were hardly of long-standing: Derffel acted as a crucial intermediary, for several months, between the now famous composer and the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna. Their communications came to an end in the middle of 1868, when in fact all of Berlioz’s communications, because of his poor health, were slowing down. Derffel, in the eighteen-seventies, would begin to see his own popularity wane, his image blurred, his name forgotten. This can be seen from references in the Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon (1872), where we find two successive entries with factual inaccuracies: “Derffel, Joseph, a contemporary piano virtuoso and composer born in Vienna”;(34) Dörffel [the first name is not given], keyboard virtuoso and composer, born in Austria, living in London since 1854”.(35) It is interesting that contacts with Russia are mentioned nowhere at all.

     Lack of the precise lexicographic data about Derffel resulted in further distortions of his name in the Berlioz literature: in one of Octave Fouque’s first important studies of Berlioz’s Russian adventures, the pianist’s name is twice given as “Dorfell”.(36) From “Dorfell” to “Dörffel” is not far at all.

     Alfred Dörffel became acquainted with Berlioz some years before Joseph Derffel’s encounter with the French composer; Dörffel’s activities had an admittedly greater impact on the course of music history than Derffel’s. Dörffel’s surname stands next to Berlioz’s on the title page of the German edition of the Grand Traité d'instrumentation et d’orchestration modernes, an edition that was reprinted on several occasions.(37) Dörffel also played an important role in recovery of certain manuscripts of the works of Gluck, and has even been credited, from time to time, with having undertaken the version of Gluck’s Orphée that was in fact made by the French composer. Dörffel’s name is furthermore frequently found as the editor of many of the works brought out by the great Leipzig firms of Peters, Breitkopf & Härtel, and Heinze. His name has often been bandied about in the literature, which is why scholars logically supposed that writing a name that resembled but did not match “Dörffel”, Berlioz was in fact thinking of the fellow who translated into German the Traité d’instrumentation, and not the Austrian pianist, composer, teacher, physicist, mathematician, and court musician to the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna who has been the subject of this article.

     Derffel played an important role in the preparation and carrying out of the second Russian tour that was in fact the last great hurrah of the great French composer’s public career. Let us hope that, in future Berlioz studies, he will receive his just due.


Letters from Berlioz to Vasily Kologrivov

     Paris, 22 octobre 1867

     Je suis bien reconnaissant de l’attention que vous avez eue de m’écrire ces jours ci, et plus encore de l’aimable reproche que vous m’adressez au sujet des programmes. Tout ce que je puis vous répondre c’est que je n’ai fait que suivre (38) les intentions de Mme La Grande Duchesse et qu’il ne peut pas me convenir d’agir autrement. Ainsi ne changez rien à ces programmes. Je compte qu’il sera possible de donner le 1r concert sous ma direction le 16/28 novembre.

     Je vous ferai parvenir un télégramme de Berlin, où je serai le 14.
     Votre tout dévoué
                             H. Berlioz (39)

     Paris 12 novembre [1867]

     Je pars dans quelques heures, je serai à Berlin demain 13 novembre au soir. Je resterai à l’hôtel le 14 et le 15 suivant. Je partirai pour St Pétersbourg où j’arriverai selon la volonté de Mme La Grande Duchesse le 17. Il vous sera facile de savoir à quelle heure ce jour-là arrive le train de Prusse.

     Vous pouvez donc ordonner les 2 répétitions de mon premier concert pour peu de jours après mon arrivée. Je suppose que vous avez trouvé un pianiste pour le concerto de Mozart, etc, etc.

     En attendant le plaisir de vous voir, veuillez je vous prie recevoir mes salutations empressées, votre tout dévoué (40)
               H. Berlioz
    Mr Derffellt [sic!!!] et Melle Regan partiront de Berlin avec moi (41)


* This article was edited by Peter Bloom, and subsequently by David Cairns, for publication in the Berlioz Society Bulletin, No. 203 (September 2017), pp. 51-64.. We thank Grigory Moiseev for sending us this article for the Hector Berlioz website.

1) Becker, incorrectly identified as the Grand Duchess’ “secretary” in Berlioz, Correspondance générale (henceforth CG), vol. VII, ed. Pierre Citron and Hugh Macdonald (Paris: Flammarion, 2001), p. 725, was the librarian at the Imperial Public Library from 1849 to 1873, and the Duchess’ official librarian from 1866 to 1873.arrow

2) See Berlioz, CG VII, pp. 596, 601, 604, 676, 682; CG IX (published as Nouvelles Lettres de Berlioz, de sa famille, de ses contemporains), ed. Peter Bloom, Joël-Marie Fauquet, Hugh Macdonald, and Cécile Reynaud (Arles: Actes Sud/Palazzetto Bru Zane, 2016), p. 660. Dörffel should furthermore be Derffel in CG VII, pp. 626 and 661, and in CG IX, p. 665.arrow

3) Oсtave Fouque, Les Révolutionnaires de la Musique (Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1882), pp. 241–242. Cf. Berlioz, CG VII, pp. 613, 626.arrow

4) CSHA St Petersburg 408-1-89, entitled “on engaging Berlioz”; 408-1-90, entitled “correspondence and documents regarding Berlioz.”arrow

5) Berlioz mistakenly identifies Keyserling as a “secretary” of the Grand Duchess (CG VII, p. 586). In fact he was a descendent of Hermann-Karl von Keyserling, the patron for whom Johann Sebastian Bach is famously purported to have composed the Goldberg Variations. Alexander von Keyserling, in Paris for the Exposition universelle of 1867, was a member of Elena Pavlovna’s inner circle. We do not know why the Grand Duchess chose him to be her intermediary with Berlioz. He later attended Berlioz’s concert of 2 December 1867 and mentioned to his daughter how impressed he had been by Berlioz’s conducting of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony. “Old Berlioz looks like a shadow. His dress coat hangs on him as if no one were under it, and his head is hidden under long grey hair that hangs like a carpet of moss.” See Graf Alexander Keyserling, Ein Lebensbild aus seinen Briefen und Tagebüchern zusammengestellt von seiner Tochter Freifrau Helene von Taube von der Issen, vol. 1 (Berlin: Georg Reimer, 1902), p. 528.arrow

6) CG VII, p. 583-585.arrow

7) CG VII, p. 728.arrow

8) Berlioz, Grand Traité d’instrumentation et d’orchestration modernes, ed. Peter Bloom (New Berlioz Edition, vol. 24; Kassel: Bärenreiter, 2003), p. xxii.arrow

9) See Berlioz, Arrangements of Works by Other Composers (I): Gluck, ed. Joël-Marie Fauquet (New Berlioz Edition, vol. 22a; Kassel: Bärenreiter, 2005), p. xi.arrow

10) CG VII, p. 462.arrow

11) CG VII, p. 597arrow

12) For further details, see Michael Lorenz, “Die Familie Schober und ihr genealogisches Umfeld”, in Schubert durch die Brille, vol. 30 (Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 2003), pp. 129–192; and Grigory Moiseev, “Joseph Derffel – а court pianist of the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovnа and а correspondent of Hector Berlioz”, in Musicology, 2017, vol. 5, pp. 39-50 (in Russian).arrow

13) See “Theater und Musik”, in the Neue Freie Presse (1 February 1865), p. 4.arrow

14) Hanslick, Sämtliche Schriften, vol. I/7, Aufsätze und Rezensionen 1864–1865, ed. Dietmar Strauss (Vienna: Böhlau, 2011), esp. pp. 88-89, 267.arrow

15) In a letter from Gounod to Derffel, we learn that the future composer of Faust had invited Derffel to his home and was helping him to find piano students. See 400 Lettres de musiciens au Musée royal de Mariemont, ed. Malou Haine (Liège: Mardaga, 1995), pp. 296-297.arrow

16) It is not clear to what score this refers. Berlioz gives the opening of this excerpt as example 22 in the Traité d'instrumentation (NBE 24, pp. 162-167); his source was the score published in Paris by Mme Le Marchand in 1777.arrow

17) Apparently a reference is to the first edition of the score: Paris: Des Lauriers, 1780.arrow

18) Apparently a reference to the first edition of the score: Paris: Bureau d’Abonnement musical, 1776.arrow

19) CSHA St Petersburg 408-1-90, folio 15-16. [The free translations presented here represent the editor’s renderings of the author’s translations from the German. — PB.]arrow

20) These and other details can be found in the unpublished letter of Derffel to Kologrivov dated 23 September/5 October. See CSHA St Petersburg 408-1-89, folio 17-20 verso.arrow

21) CSHA St Petersburg 408-1-90, folio 16-16 verso.arrow

22) CSHA St Petersburg 408-1-90, folio 15.arrow

23) CSHA St Petersburg 408-1-89, folio 5 verso.arrow

24) CG IX, pp. 657-659.arrow

25) Anastasiia Syreischikova, “Berlioz’s Russian Tours in the Context of Russian-French Musical Relations”, Ph.D. dissertation (Moscow, 2017), pp. 265-270; Anastasiia Syreischikova, “O russkom angazhemente Berlioza. Iz arkhivov Russkogo muzykalnogo obshchestva” [On Berlioz’s Russian Engagements, from the archives of the Russian Musical Society], Starinnaya muzyka [Early Music], 2016, No. 4, pp. 29–39; CG IX, pp. 657-659 (No. 3282bis).arrow

26) CSHA St Petersburg 408-1-89, folio 18.arrow

27) CG VII, p. 609.arrow

28) CG IX, p. 660.arrow

29) CSHA St Petersburg 408-1-100, folio 56-58. The newspaper accounts include those by Alexander Famintsyn, “Petersburg chronicle”, in the Golos [Voice] (15/27 January 1868), p. 1; by [Anonymous], “Musical Week. 9th concert of the Russian Musical Society. – The soloists: M. Wilhelmj, Mlle Regan, M. Derffel”, in the Novoe vremya [New Time] (23 January/3 February 1868), p. 1; by Wilhelm von Lenz, “Musikalisches”, in the St. Petersburg Zeitung (18/30 January 1868), p. 3; and by César Cui, “Musical notes. 9th concert of the Russian Musical Society”, in the Sankt-Peterburgskie vedomosti [St Petersburg State Gazette] (19/31 January 1868), p. 1.arrow

30) CSHA St Petersburg 408-1-100, folio 56.arrow

31) CG IX, p. 657.arrow

32) It should be noted that Derffel had already performed this concerto on two previous occasions: in Leipzig, at the Gewandhaus, under Carl Reinecke, on 25 October 1866; and in St Petersburg, under Anton Rubinstein, on 6 November 1866.arrow

33) César Cui, “Musical notes. 9th concert of the Russian Musical Society”, in the Sankt-Peterburgskie vedomosti [St. Petersburg State Gazette] (31 January 1868), p. 1.arrow

34) Constantin von Wurzbach, Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, vol. 24 (Vienna: Druck und Verlag der k.k. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, 1872), p. 387.arrow

35) Ibid., p. 392.arrow

36) Octave Fouque, “Berlioz en Russie”, in Fouque, Les Révolutionnaires de la Musique (Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1882), pp. 242, 244.arrow

37) Berlioz, Instrumentationslehre, Autorisirte deutsche Ausgabe von Alfred Dörffel (Leipzig: Gustav Heinze, 1864).arrow

38) Fouque (and therefore CG VII) have “suivant”.arrow

39) CSHA St Petersburg 408-1-89, folio 28.arrow

40) This sentence does not appear in Fouque (and therefore not in CG VII).arrow

41) CSHA St Petersburg 408-1-89, folio 29-29 verso.arrow

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